Monday, March 23, 2020

Does the idea of national cinema still have relevance in the age of globalization

Introduction A national cinema entails films that are produced within a nation state, and have always been used to portray the culture of the particular nation. The understanding of most films, always have one or more protagonist, and this protagonist seek adventure, redemption or escape (Klinger 1997, p. 2). Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Does the idea of national cinema still have relevance in the age of globalization? specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Most nation cinemas are associated with the culture embedded in the people, however modern films show how globalization has affected people’s culture (Wood2007 p. 3). The great depression really affected the movie industry in Hong Kong; national cinema fans asked major producers and directors in the movie industry to come up with something different, new and unique. The founding fathers of Hong Kong cinemas were created by the Shu Tong in 1922, Nanook of the North. This included traveling to foreign places and taking pictures, and recording what was to be unknown by most people (Hugo 1986, p.70). In the early film years, national cinema movies were about discovery of new lands and expansion of the land scope. However, today it show movies are defined by the identity crisis of the protagonist and how they restructure themselves. The film ‘police story’ a Hong Kong film produced in 1985, starring Jackie Chan is a martial art action movie was a success across East Asia and when it was translated to English it received a rating of 83%. The martial art stunts by Jackie Chan appealed to many foreign viewers. Martial art is a known art across Asia and is part of the culture (Morrison 2009, p.2) The whole attitude of the movie is complex because it starts out with no plot and the protagonist is set to bring out a certain theme (Schweingruber 2005, p.3). The film writers in Hong Kong movies often embed the people’s cultur e, their lifestyle and livelihood. In the age of globalization, movies writers are approaching a system of blending the modern with ancient tradition. For example in the film, Jackie Chan holds the ancient ways of martial art, but is in a modern setting with subways and cars. This is police story was one of the great Hong Kong movies, that end up representing the whole plot in a fusion that the feelings are actually felt by the audience (Hugo 1986, p.68). This film carries a lot of experimental and does not follow the contemporary arts of filmmaking. Chan is acknowledging for daring to explore in these movie and the unique set ups placed in the movie. Directors in modern movies in Hong Kong have embraced road trip movies, all which seem to carry on the same theme and patronage (Klinger 1997, p.12). The theory of a road movie before was put up in a set up where pictures were borrowed and background scenes. Today, the directors trace round the world in order to shoot a film in a dive rse setting (Warshow 1970, p. 37).Advertising Looking for essay on art and design? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The road trips movies bring out the dysfunctionality of a setting, and when the protagonist want to change setting, there is even more chaos where they are heading (Kubrick1993 p. 40). The road movies were a borrowed strategy from an American film ‘Easy ride† shot back in the 1900’s that captured a different film approach. The Hong Kong films certainly were a captive to the audience, because of the introduction of the unknown (Hill1996, p. 70). Producer of these films have discovered this as a formula to capture more viewers to the unknown designation. More road movies are still in production in Hong Kong, and these movies are quite captivating. Hong Kong film ideology The Hong Kong ideology constitutes that talented and hard working citizens can get ahead, and the system is dependent on a syste m of cultures to provide opportunities and explain failures (Weber2001, p. 31). Dreams contain what we know, what we want, what we think we can and cannot have and what we imagine is possible (Weber 2001, p.32). Dreams tell us a lot about people, they can tell us when people fell free in their minds, or when feeling controlled and contained. Movie producers trying to convey the Hong Kong society have used the film metaphors, Davis (2001) also talks about the right to have an opportunity to fulfill our God-given talent (256). The society is supposed to be the place of opportunity to all and a place that makes the Hong Kong ideology possible (Weber 2001, p.32). Weber (2001) notes that Hong Kong films have being portrayed in various components by Hollywood and they include (p.31); one a local setting in a remote village, the second involves a stream of anarchy as the rule in town.Hollywood has always portrayed Asian films as a martial action film that involves a lot of Kung Fu and Tae- kwo-ndo. The women appear to be also part of the action and despite submission can equally perform all forms of art. Holly wood has portrayed a rule in Asian movies, where there is the belief of political democracy and not economic democracy. This constitutes the belief of social and political democracy but economic inequality (Weber 2001, p.34). However, some producers have come up with certain films, that has declares the truth and sanitize Hollywood’s perception. This films shows that the Hong Kong ideology is not all one needs to succeed but there are other factors put in place that lead to success and achievement. With strong backing from the culture system, for example shows the ideology needs reproduction .Charyn (1996) believes the Hong kong ideology is believable only if it emerges when ordinary people act out the stories daily (p.35).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Does the idea of national cinema still have relevance in the age of globalizat ion? specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Hong Kong cinema system Jennifer Hochschild notes the Hong Kong films in the global era has four components which entail; one is equality of opportunity, where all producers can pursue money, property and social resources (Archer and Hubbard, 1996) secondly, resonate anticicipation where every film producer availed with equal opportunity and resources anticipates to be financially successful (p.4).Thirdly, individual responsibility for success with successful people is seeing as responsible for their own success. Democratic capitalism is based on a paradox, where there is the belief of political democracy and not economic democracy. This constitutes the belief of social and political democracy but economic inequality (Weber 2001, p.31). Therefore, the Hong Kong films today in short provide a powerful explanation for the fundamental explanation for the contradiction of democratic capitalism. This s hows the dream ideology is not all one needs to succeed but there are other factors put in place that lead to success and achievement. With strong backing from the culture system, the Hong kong films ideology needs reproduction, because not only does it promote images of inferiority of some groups but also promotes equal damaging constructions that others are superiors (Weber 2001, p.33). Ideologies are believable only if they emerge when ordinary people act out the stories daily. The writer in police story is convicting in his arguments because, of all the underlying examples given such as Jackie Chan. We see that despite Jackie Chan’s production talent it took other factors to see through his achievements (Weber 2001, p.34). The Hong Kong ideology is indeed just a belief, but people still believe in it and prefer to point fingers at others in denial instead of realizing new systems are taking over. Critical questions to be asked as observed by Carson (1969)include; why in the Hong Kong society filming is taken in as a cultured system? Is the Hong Kong ideology in the film industry just a dream? And lastly, is education the cornerstone of the Hong Kong industry (p.25). Possible approach practices to develop Hong Kong cinema Hong Kong filmdevelopment comes out as a strong approach that will come up with strategies that will enable the industry community to have self-development to not only improve the quality of the films but also see through international markets (Schweingruber 2005, p.3). The following are the listed approaches that will implement the proposed developmentAdvertising Looking for essay on art and design? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conscious rising: this is making aware through information to the Hon Kong films on certain issues, with the intention of the audience to link the information with them. Here a lot of dialogue is undertaken, cross producers meet and share experiences on the film production. This will encourage them and raise awareness to the other people of its effects. Activities carried out here could involve going putting up posters, calling for press briefings in public places, going to several institutions to lecture about the upcoming films.. (Binet 2006, p.23) Campaigning: the second practice will be to embrace campaigns, in order to reach as many people at a go. The campaigns will take shape in that, they will be positive campaigns, presenting a message that is transmitted to the public as an awareness to them. Lastly, it will take a neutral standing where the message will not be directed to anyone in particular. Some of the activities that are going to take place during the campaigns includ e, free concerts to attract as much attention as possible, door to door campaigns, putting up of posters and fliers and lastly inviting idols in the society to come and address the audience during the campaign since it will attract a large crowd hence many people will get to be educated about the films (Warshow 1970, p.37). Capacity building: in simple terms can be said to be a process in which the film producers increases their competence to be better producers in the cinema industry. This involves changing the structuring, the behavior and perception of a national cinema by most people (Charyn 1996 p.304); and importantly identifying, assets and capacities at hand, particularly those that are easily acquired or in born talent which is free to all. If the Hong Kong producers choose to sell their films to international markets, a blend of culture would be more appealing to the foreign eye. For a long time the Hong Kong film producers have taken to only embed in their culture; but t imes have changed and filming have a global audience. The multicultural world of today, is viewed as a very important factor in the film arena, the various cultural heritages are very well represented with more organizations trying to comprehend and blend in the system (Charyn 1996, p.305). In order to create harmony between these cultures a lot of review has been done on the Hong Kong films with companies encouraging teams to comprise with the many races and cultural background members. Cultural noise being the factors that undermine the communication of the intended meaning such as attitude, social organization and roles played by the organization. Language is been worked upon to improve communication for the betterment of the film making (Kubrick 1999 p.35). In effort to make communication between members effective, the one speaking has to ensure that the one receiving on the other end understands fully what message is being put across but sometimes this process is incomplete due to cultural noise and the following cultural differences have been identified to cause conflicts. The direct versus the indirect communication is one of the issues that could bring non-cooperation among team members where you find in one culture being direct and to the point is the way to address issues in a team (Klinger 1997,p.12). For example, the Americans take a direct approach whenever they are raising certain issues pending to be solved whereas the Chinese tend to take an indirect approach in term of communication whenever they want to raise issues that concern them. Trouble with accents and fluency could also be problematic to team members because it does not bring one to fully express themselves in circumstances where they need to be clear and to the point. The Latin Americans for example, when trading in English their sentences always seem to imply on as a request instead of a question. This could also be problematic to a team because you find the team members fluent in s peech tend to take the lead and undermine the other team members who are not so fluent despite the fact that they are a team. Differing attitudes towards hierarchy in the Hong Kong film industry also encourage a lot of misunderstanding where a team could find difficulty in one issue or another and may want to consult from top level management on the way forward, but the way they do this could differ for example, the Americans will go direct to their senior for advise whereas the Chinese have a protocol to follow (Charyn 1996 p.306). Conflicting decision-making norms play a major role on the working relationship of the team where parties involved could disagree on the basis of decision making the Americans on finding Solutions tend to make decisions there and then while the Chinese feel that the decision should be made on after the organization has sat and discussed it over. The directors in the film industry having seen these problems has to present various ways and strategies to ta ckle with the multiracial challenge enabling employees to work together despite of their cultural backgrounds and Cook (2000) suggests the following: One is adaptation, whereby the director does not interfere with the differences of the team members and leaves them to solve their various problems in their own way allowing them to work out ways in which they form bases of working together (p.72). Structural intervention is whereby the manager of the project distributes the group members in a way they are fit to work with each other (p.86). This will prevent interpersonal friction between the group members because if the groups are not well aligned it could strengthen pre existing differences Where there is no form of agreement, the manager can choose to be the judge and overall in the decision-making, this is where teams leave the manager with various options, and he gets to choose, and this is without the team getting involved (p.94). And lastly, where the team members totally canno t come to terms on most issues, this could lead to the exit of one of the members in order to manage the functioning of the other team (115). Here, the team member can voluntarily leave or requested to leave for the purpose of the running of the team. It is usually a last result in order to manage the team and meet deadlines for assigned project but not mostly taken as an option. Evaluation of competencies starts with the film producer analysis,the ideas the director is able to offer to other untapped markets and what they can withdraw from the market to offer the best results (Hugo 1986 p.67). Analysing a director’s competencies goes on by looking at intangible resources like goodwill, reputation, motivation; and human resources like skills and flexibility of key films in Hong Kong. Conclusion People should focus on areas where the industry has strengths and in order to expect creative returns and notable change .a good director should know it is cost effective to outsource areas where they seem to be weaker, and that it is better to seek external advice rather than want to make blind decisions. References Archer, J., Hubbard, S.,1996.Integrated tracking for integrated communications. London: Warc ltd. Binet, L.,2006.Fifteen ways not to evaluate your communication. ADMAP, 469, pp. 32-34. Carson, K. M., 1969. Easy rider a very American thing. Evergreen review, 13, pp.24-27. Cook, D., 2000.Lost illusion: American cinema in the shadow of Watergate and Vietnam. Berkley:University of California Press. Charyn, J.,1989. Movieland: Hollywood and the great American dream culture. New York,Putnam. Davis, R. L., 2001.Hollywood beauty: Linda Darnell and the American dream. New York, University of the Oklahoma Press. Hill, L., 1996.Easy rider. London,British Film Institute. Hugo, C., 1986. Easy rider and Hollywood in the 70’s. Movie,31/32, pp. 67-71. Klinger, B., 1997.The road to Dystopia. New York, Routledge. Kubrick, S., 1999.The Auter cinema: directors an d directions in the Hollywood Renaissance. London, Routledge Falmer. Morrison, M., 2009.Communication in film learning: Matter of social justice. London: Library of Congress. Schweingruber, D., 2005.The sociological paradox: Definition from Newman’s sociology. New Orleans, Ilstate publishers. Warshow, P., 1969.Easy rider.Sight and sound.39(1), pp36-38 Weber, L., 2001.Understanding race, class, gender and sexuality: A conceptual framework. New York,McGraw Hill. Wood, J., 2007.100 road movies. London,British Film Institute. This essay on Does the idea of national cinema still have relevance in the age of globalization? was written and submitted by user Rebekah Z. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Friday, March 6, 2020

When Words Collide

When Words Collide When Words Collide When Words Collide By Maeve Maddox This use of the verb collide in a newspaper article struck me as odd: One driver was able to stop short of hitting the child but her bike collided into another car. The verb collide is from Latin collidere, to strike or clash together. Its most common use is as an intransitive verb. Used without a prepositional phrase, collide signifies an action in which two moving objects strike one another: Two satellites collide in orbit Two NJ Transit buses collided in the Lincoln Tunnel this morning Two Thai F16 jets collided in mid-air and crashed Collide can also be used figuratively: Southern Politics and Personalities Collide in Old Globes Cornelia, What Happens When Political and Humanitarian Goals Collide? When the colliding objects are not of the same kind, or a contrast between them is desired, a prepositional phrase is employed: Fire Truck Collides With a Van birds collide with airplanes As sea floor spreads from the oceanic ridge, it eventually collides against the continental crust or plate. Insurance rates collide with credit scores Pakistani frigate collides against the dock Jeep collides against tree The prepositions with and against are used to introduce the other object in the collision. The use of with indicates that both objects were moving. The preposition against indicates that one of the objects was stationary. The following headline is redundant: 15 Injured after 2 Buses Collide against each other The OED entry includes a transitive use of collide, but calls it rare or obsolete. Changing technology may call this use back from obsolescence. Here are two recent examples of collide used transitively: I simply want to collide a sprite against the edges of the screen. The simulation has determined they are not moving fast enough to warrant colliding them against each other A Google search turns up millions of examples of collide into, but in most instances, the writer may have been reaching for crashed: RAF Tornados nearly collided into each  other What would happen if a planet collided into the sun? Woman who collided into train tested positive for cocaine Some writers use the word in mysterious ways. In the following examples collide seems to be standing in for combined or coalesced: Can tetanus, meningitis, and chicken pox shots be all collided into 1 shot? Our worlds collided into one chat room. Bottom line: If you find yourself placing into after collide, you may wish to reconsider your use of one of the two words. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Vocabulary category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:20 Great Opening Lines to Inspire the Start of Your Story40 Synonyms for â€Å"Lie†1,462 Basic Plot Types

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

CAAP#5 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

CAAP#5 - Essay Example Scholars often question whether -since making money in order to survive amid the adversaries of life is the primary goal of a prostitute- prostitution would exist, if there is any other way left for them to make money. Presumably the instant response to this question is ‘no’, because selling one’s body to make money appears to be the last resort for a woman who is incapable of any decent job. Since the main problem of illegal prostitution is not the prostitution itself, legalization of prostitutions is supposed to help the reduction prostitution related crimes and delinquencies as the sex-trafficking along the border. Also in order to reduce the sex-trafficking, while legalizing prostitution, the government will have to grant legal import of the product of sexual consumption namely prostitutes, if the US society fails to provide enough supply of prostitutes to the local sex-market. This condition necessarily infers that even if prostitution is legalized, the probl ems will go on to exist. Moreover, legalization of prostitution may, on one hand, preserve the rights of the immigrant prostitutes, but it will violate the rights of the majority of women who are not prostitutes, unless those women are mentally prepared to share their male counterpart’s love and, if not love, sex. If it is granted that married males are legally prohibited to go to the brothels, the question that arises here is whether the US law enforcement agencies would be massive enough to impose the surveillance effectively. To a limited extent, legalization of prostitution would solve some particular problems but in return it will bring more problems that will be far beyond any solution. The primary goal of the CIR funded resource centers is to blur the socio-cultural lines of racial segregation and meanwhile provides the members with scopes to know each other by practical interactions between immigrants and the native born. From such steps of the governments, the whole society

Monday, February 3, 2020

Painful Shoulder Medical Treatment Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Painful Shoulder Medical Treatment - Case Study Example SH: The patient is a mother of two boys, the youngest being 7 years old. She is single and lives with the two boys and a younger sister. She is a business woman and travels to and from work daily on her motorcycle. She does not smoke or take alcohol.O/E: Looks stable and well oriented. She is however in pain but can walk in her own without support (Davies et al. 2011, p.6). She gives her own history,Head and Neck: NADTrunk: NADHands: slight bruising on the right palm. Patient was wearing riding gloves during the accident.  Right shoulder:Anterior Aspect:  Minimal swelling over the SC Joint, Clavicle, AC Joint and     Trapezius muscle, slight bruising with no obvious deformity, no visible wound.Bony tenderness noted over the SC Joint, Clavicle, AC Joint.  Ã‚  No bony tenderness over the Acromion Process, coracoid process, non - tender on deltoid muscle, pectoralis major and biceps muscleNerves: Regimental Badge Sign Tested-full sensation noted on deltoid muscle- Axillary, Br achial Plexus, Median, Ulnar and Radial nerve-sensation intact and compare to the left arm.Posterior Aspect:  No bruising or obvious deformity, no erythema or wound, skin intact compare to left shoulder.Slight Tenderness over the trapezius muscle, non-tender over the scapula, acromion process, Supraspinatus muscle, Infraspinatus muscle and Latissimus Muscle.Active Movement: Retraction-reduced and painful over the shoulderProtraction-reduced and painful over the shoulderElevation-reduced and painful over the shoulder

Sunday, January 26, 2020

The Changing Status Of Indian Women

The Changing Status Of Indian Women Historiography went throughout massive changes in 20th century especially after Second World War. Political history was replaced and challenged by socio-cultural history which broadening perspective towards theoretical innovations and brought new fields into historiography, most notably gender history which brought to historiography in the form of women history. However gender studies is an independent discipline which brought fifty percent of the population into the focus of historical studies that was previously generally gender blind or simply masculine. Women history is the study of the role that women played in history which includes the growth of women rights as recorded in history and the examination of an individual woman of historical significance and the effects of historical events on women. Women history emerged as a independent disciplines in 1960s or 1970s because, the traditional historical writing have minimized and ignored the contribution of women and also the effec ts of historical events on women as a whole, in this respect, women history is often a from of historical revisionism seeking to challenge the traditional historical consensus. History was written mainly by men and about mens activities in public spheres politics, war and diplomacy and aministration.Women was usally mentioned or portrayed in stereotyped role such as mother, wives, daughter and mistress.  [1]   In Indian history we can get references about the role of women from the beginning of the Indus valley civilization, the first known civilization of India which said to have flourished in 25th century BC. As per historical evidences peoples of this valley worshiped natural forces and divine power were mostly feminine. Nature was often called by term mother. Mother goddess was the first worshiped deity in the Indus valley. Indus community was basically matriarchal so there was no existence of the gender discrimination. Men and women both were engaged in food gathering which was the main economic activity that reveals equal participation of both in daily economic life.  [2]   The essence of the Vedic period as reflected in Vedic literature like four Vedas namely Rig, Yajur, Sama and Atharvam and their different branches like Brahmanas and Upanishads.The Early Vedic age which begins from 1500 B.C. and the post-Vedic age which extends from 1000 B.C. to 500 B.C. The word Veda primarily means knowledge, which virtually signifies sacred knowledge or scripture. During the Rig-Vedic or Early Vedic age that most of the hymns of the Rig-Veda were composed. It was in the later Vedic period that the Brahmanas, the three other Vedas and the Upanishads were composed.  [3]   During the Vedic era the patriarchal culture superseded the matriarchal culture and gender discrimination being introduced in the society, but the Rig-Veda reflect a stage where women enjoyed equal status of man and the Vedic sacrifices were jointly performed by both men and women.  [4]  But patriarchy never suppressed women rights and privileges. Girls were given education from 4th century BC. There were no references about child marriage in Rig-Vedic era.  [5]  If any girl wants to continue her education without marriage they were allowed to do so. There are two types of educated wise women were in Vedic period Brahmavadinis and Sadyodvahas. Many educated women became teacher in Vedic period they are called Upadhyayinis. Lopamudra was a famous women preacher who composed 179 hymns of Rig-Veda jointly with Agasthya. According to Dr Roy choudhury women not only composed hymns but were also well-versed in sacred texts. Women also learnt music and dancing  [6]  The Vedic pe oples were not conscious about gender power- politics and conflict at that time because Vedic society was then at a developing stage not in a complex mode. Widows remarriage was permitted in the Rig-Vedic society. Rig-Veda mentioned several hymns like the widow who lay on the pyre by the side of her dead husband was asked to come to the world of the living.  [7]  Rig-Veda also gave references about the freedom of women in Vedic society; they attended all religious festivals and fairs with their loved ones. The Aryans believed thatà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ the wife and the husband being the equal halves of one substance were regarded equal in every respect and both took equal part in all duties, religious and social.  [8]  During Vedic age inter-caste marriage took place in the society. According to D.N Jha à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦in one case the father was a priest, the mother grinder of corn and the son a physician, all three lived happily together.  [9]   But the degradation of women status was started in the later Vedic period. We can get references about post Vedic society from the Brahmanas, Upanisads and the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Smriti writers Manu, Yajnavalkya began to favour seclusion of women. Social customs and tradition were reinforced by the law-givers which degraded the position of women and the gender discrimination has begun. Indian society was based on caste system where Brahmins are preoccupied the top most position. Where Jain and Buddhist religion tried their best to bring equality in the society there Brahminical religion began to enforce strict moral code for their followers. Patriarchal families became powerful during this period and restrict womens activities. They were looked down upon as a temptation and hindrance in their march towards higher development.  [10]   The child widow were forcedly live a life with full of restriction which marred them physically and mentally, and from the 1st century AD the law givers prohibited widow remarriage. The writer of Arthasastra kautilya considered women as a child bearing machine and encouraged pre-pubescent marriages which damaged child bride mentally and physically because she was not physically fit to conceive a child and the adolescent pregnancy carries higher risk due to toxaemia (Organic Blood Poisoning), Cephalo-pelvic disproportion* and uterine inertia (uterine inertia that occurs when the uterus fails to contract with sufficient force to effect continuous dilation or effacement of the cervix or descent or rotation of the fetal head, and when the uterus is easily indentable at the acme of contraction). Other disorders which affect children born to young mothers are CNS malformation (Central Nervous System) and CVS malformation which involves the cardiovascular system. The effects of physical hea lth also effects women self-confidence level. Now they were only capable of producing child and managing household affairs and their other socially useful activities prevailed. According to Romila Thapar Manu was felt that the inter-caste marriage would pollute the Aryan society. So à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦to avoid pollution, you must control birthà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ but you lose control over birth, if you lose control over women  [11]  Manu also makes some provision for punishment of a woman by her husband if she makes any faults. She should be beaten by rope or by bamboo. Manu never sanctioned widow remarriage because she should remain faithful to her husbands memory but the widower could marry again. In Rig-Vedic times women was denied the right of inheritance. But Putrika could inherit her fathers wealth. The Niyoga system was encouraged where women was forced to marry her brother-in-law to safeguard property rights. In Vedic and post Vedic ages women married and unmarried daughter had some rights of inheritance but a widow, as well as wife, had no claim over her husbands property. Marriage became compulsory for Hindus. And the patriarchal system tended to keep the status of women at a low level, and the emergence of the joint family with special property rights for the male members reinforced male dominance.  [12]  The Rig-Vedic concept of Sahadharmini was replaced by Pativrata Dharma. This began a master- slave relationship between husband and wife. The right of choice of life partner was also taken away from woman. Manu in 2th century B.C insisted that women should always controlled by his male superior, in child age she must be controlled by her father, then after by his husband in her youth and in old age she must be controlled by his sons.  [13]   The Buddhist age witnessed a serious change in the status of Indian women. Gautama Buddha made the adoption of daughters valid which squashed the general belief that the birth of son was indispensible to attain salvation. Apart from this women were accepted as nun in the Buddhist monasteries. Admission of women into the monastic order secured for them a religious status and they played a vital role in propagating Buddhism. Buddha was allowed women to marry man of her choice and also gave the wife the right to inherit the husbands property. Buddhism also permitted divorce in some special cases. Buddhism also legalizing the right of unmarried daughter to the inherit fathers property in the absence of a son which provided women economic independence. Buddha also encouraged widow remarriage and finally in 12th century A.D the widows right of inheritance was recognize. Buddhism also gave prostitutes legal status by admitted them in Sanghas life, now they could live a life of alms-women. There were separate rules obviously discriminatory for men women who wanted to join the Buddhist Sanghas. In the annual Upostha Ceremony Buddhism also reveals the prejudice against women. Another discriminatory rule is mentioned in Sulla Vogga according to which the official admonition by an alms-woman is forbidden, whereas the official admonition of an alms woman by a monk is not forbidden.  [14]  Buddhism improved the status of at least a section of women who embraced that religion. The majority of women at that time lived in abject subordination, under the restraints imposed by Brahmanical religion. But the overall development in womens life and work soon eclipsed by the reassertion of Brahmanical religion. Buddhism never tried to abolish existing social order. The two main joint forces which degrade women position are joint family and caste system remained unalterable. Thats why some scholar has argued that the Buddhism was failed to understand the situation of woman from the angle of social justice. If justice were to be really done mere laws are not sufficient. It takes a total re-orientation in judicial thinking and attitude, if gender justice is to be doneà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ã‚  [15]   During the early medieval period the status women were gone lower and she was regarded equal status of Sudras. The smriti writers prohibited intercaste marriages. After Muslim invasion à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Indian religion and social customs were faced with a system which was equally formulated and definite.  [16]  Which resulted caste system was became more rigid. Occupation now began to determine by birth. Now the lower society of Hindu castes was got an opportunity to assert their dignity by convert to the religion of equality i.e. Islam. Thats way Islam was spread very fast in some parts in India. Women dependence to her husband and was a prominent features of this period. Indian women now have lost their access to Streedhana or dowry and engaged themselves in farming and weaving. Now women cant freely participate in any religious festivals and functions with her male partner. Another social evil like child marriage adversely affected the health of the girls. Besides Muslims rulers in India had large harems which encouraged polygamy, even among the Hindus there was no limit set to the number of wives a man can take. Another social evil that existed in medieval India was female infanticide which was prevalent among the Rajputs and other higher castes and even among the Muslims. Purdah system gained popularity with the advent of the Muslims, Purdah is actually a Persian word According to Patricia Jeffrey Purdah is a part and parcel of stratification in India It becomes the mental foot binding, the frogs in a well syndrome, the submissiveness of the young bride and the inability of adult women to cope with the world outside.  [17]   Female infanticide was a negative effect of dowry system but this system became an integral part of the marriage ceremony in medieval India. It became a heavy burden to the poor peoples. The condition of Hindu widow became more miserable during Muslim period. She was forced to lead a life which was full of sorrows and was far from all worldly pleasure. The feudal society of Muslim India encouraged the practice of Sati. By the burning herself with her own husband she proves her loyalty. According to Soroj Gulati because of the continuous wars, there were chances of too many widows young and old, and a big question was how to accommodate them without bringing stigma to the family or creating problems for society.  [18]  Prostitution became a recognized institution in medieval India besides the Debdasi system in south India degraded the status of women, under this worst system women were brides of Gods but they are supposed to entertain kings, priests and even number of upper classes. According to Alberuni the kings make them an attraction for their cities, a bait of pleasure for their subjects, for no other but financial reasons.  [19]   The contribution of European to rediscovery of Indias ancient past was widely accepted by several scholars and writers of the nineteenth and twentieth century but their perception was influenced by British by two separate contradictory ways. One strand was represented by the Orientalists, whose reconstruction of the glory of Indian civilization was taken over lock, stock, and barrel by 19th century Indian writers. Another strand was the Utilitarian and Evangelical attack on contemporary Indian society on the visibly low status of women. The early Indian nationalist writers successfully constructed an image of womanhood in the lost past as a counter to the real existence of woman in the humiliating present. The woman question was not a theme that was foregrounded in the earliest work of the Asiatic society. William Jones did not pay any attention to Sati. It was Henry Thomas Colebrooke who focuses attention directly upon the women question on his first research On the Duties of the Faithful Hindu Widow  [20]  where he presented the textual position of sati. In the first quarter of the 19th century Raja Rammohun Roy declared crusade against sati, and argued that the ultimate goal of all Hindu was selfless absorption in a divine essence, a union that could not flow from an action like sati. In the 19th century Indian intelligentsia group involve in a dual encounter with colonial ideology. Awareness of the past through Orientalist scholarship was encounters by a strong negative perception of the present those missionaries, administrators; travelers were engaged in writing about this issue. The women question became a crucial tool in the colonial ideology. Colonial writers focused on the barbaric practices pertaining to women of the Hindu civilization. One of finest example and best known work in this perspective is James mills History of British India where Mill suggested that the Hindus were a high cultured people now in a state of decline. He judged the civilization was the position it accorded to its women. His conclusion was that the practice of segregating women did not come with the Mohammedans; rather, it was a consequence of the whole sprit of the Hindu society by which women must be constantly guarded at all times for fear of their intimate tendency towards infidelity. He states that Hindus compared women with a heifer on the plain that longeth for fresh grasses, referring to their uncontrollable sexuality.  [21]   The degradation of women position in Hindu civilization requiring the protection and intervention of colonial state, that the Hindus were unfit to rule themselves. On this ground British rule in India could be justified by a humanitarian and moral level. Indian intellect classes react violently to this grim picture of Hindu civilization and marshaled argument against each major criticism. The condition of women in past was a key aspect of historical writing in 1840s.One such example in this account provided by M.C Deb a converted Christian member of Young Bengal group according to him men in India look upon women as household slaves and treat them with a superciliousness that even the Sultan of Turkestan does not show towards his meanest serf.  [22]  In 1842 Peary Chand Mitra provided a well versed response to the mill approach on the position of women in Hindu civilization. He shows references from Sanskrit text Mahanirban Tantra which states that daughter should be nursed and educated with care and married to learned man.  [23]  His view about Indian women crystallized a national feminine identity which was based on high culture and nationalist writers are arguing about the high status of women in ancient India which is noticeable in Clarisse Baders monograph on ancient Indian women was published in 1867 which was directly inspired by Max Muellerian view of romanticization of ancient past. According to Baders view the Sati was an expression of womans ability to go beyond the bounds of requirement.  [24]  This view was inspired by western Orientalist womanhood identity that a women should be learned, free and highly cultured. In 1888 R.C Dutta provides a comprehensive rebuttal of Mills denigration of lower status of Hindu women. Women of the past valorized in two separate ways one of them their spiritual potential and their role as sahadharminis and a heroic resister to alien rulers who choose their death rather than dishonour.  [25]  According to Jashodhara Bagchi, the inherent tension between past and present womanhood was resolved by Bankimchandra in his last novels. In Anandamath he portrayed a women character shanti who fights shoulder to shoulder with her husband in liberating the motherland from shackles. Here shanti provided a role model of womanhood closest to a national identity during late 19th and 20th centuries, till up to Indian independence.  [26]   Another social reformer Dayaananda Saraswati believed the Vedic women lived an idyllic existence and fully participates in all areas of public life, but Muslim influence had taught Hindus to imprison their women within the house.  [27]  Dayananda was a sole rationale of a womans existence. According to him a child body is made up of elements derived from the body of mother, so mother getting weaker after each confinement. For continued needs of propagating strong and healthy children, the wife and husband should be content with each other.  [28]  Throughout the 19th century the most problematic category of women were widows for consequence of early marriage and reformers were attempting to resolve the problem, Dayananda found his solution that remarriage for both men and women was equally valid if there were no children from earlier marriage. But the best practice for both man and woman is Brahmacharya (self-control), followed by adoption but who cant control their passions t he best recourse is niyoga.  [29]   The woman question had dominated throughout most of the 19th century was something of a casualty during this period, has faced a tremendous reaction against the Age of Consent Bill because of implicit fear of conservatives of the lost control over womens sexuality. In the closing decade of the 19th century we have got a unique identity of Indian womanhood from Swami Vivekananda who characterized Hindu womanhood by her devotional and spiritual character instead of western materialist setting womanhood.  [30]  In the changed political and social environment of the late 19th century the women image which was portrayed by the nationalists was more important than the reality throughout of the 20th century, the image also came to examined by the reality through the work of Altekar, as the historical reality.

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Shakespeare’s Henry V Minor Characters

Christina Priester Amy Smith Eng 205 10/15/12 The main characters in Shakespeare's Henry V are extraordinarily compelling. From the beginning of the play, most of the focus is directed to interactions between King Henry and other royalty or people of status and significance. Very little attention is focused on the minor characters, the peasants- the Hostess, the Boy, and the soldiers- Bardolf, Nym, and Pistol. Although these characters have only small parts in the play, they are essential. They take the spotlight for a moment, temporarily diverting our attention from the King and his political responsibilities.Each of them contribute necessary background information, their opinion of King Henry, and the soldier's perspective of the upcoming battle, The first act of the play is focused on the conspiracy between the leaders of the Church and King Henry making the decision to go to war with France. While all of the political information is needed for the plot, it is quite dense, and som e of it is hard to get through. There is some relief in Act II of the play, when the Hostess, the Boy, Bardolf, Nym, and Pistol are introduced.There is some humor in the exchanges between the soldiers. For example, Bardolph to Nym: â€Å"What, are Ancient Pistol and you friends yet? † Nym answers, and Bardolph to Nym: â€Å"I will bestow a breakfast to make you friends and we'll all three be sworn brothers to France. † This is clearly a sarcastic teasing remark to Nym, with the suggestion these two situations will never happen. The scene becomes grim when the Boy enters, informing them of Falstaff's illness. Falstaff is seriously ill, and in scene three of Act II, we learn that Falstaff has passed on.The soldiers grieve for their lost friend, but the Hostess has the strongest emotional reaction. She was caring for him at his bedside when he passed away. Falstaff was an integral character in the preceding play, King Henry IV. He and the other soldiers were friends of He nry before he became King. The friendship between Henry and Falstaff ended harshly. The Hostess, along with the soldiers think Falstaff's illness is in part caused by Henry's harsh treatment of Falstaff. In the passage by the Hostess, just after the Boy enters, she makes a statement â€Å"The King has killed his heart. After Nym and Pistol settle their quarrel, the Hostess tells the men to visit Falstaff, and Nym comments â€Å"The King hath run bad rumors on the knight, that's the even of it. † Although they hold the King partially to blame for Falstaff falling ill, they still seem to hold King Henry in high regard. Nym makes a statement to Pistol â€Å"The King is a good King, but it must be as it may, he passes some humors and careers. † The interpretation of this phrase is that although the King is good, he still has quirks and faults of his own.Pistol expresses his opinion of King Henry in Act IV, on the eve of battle when Henry, disguised as a volunteer soldier engages Pistol in a conversation. He tells Henry he thinks the King is a fine fellow, with a heart of gold, was raised well by his parents. He goes on to proclaim he love and loyalty to King Henry. Pistol is unaware he is speaking to the King himself. He shows contempt for the disguised King when he finds out about Henry's relation to Fluellen, the Captain that ordered the execution of Bardolph.King Henry is very adamant about the execution of Bardolph in Act III when he is caught stealing a holy relic from a French church. Henry gives his reasoning that Bardolph should be so punished â€Å"We would have all such offenders cut off. And we give express charge that, in our marches through the country, there be nothing compelled from the villages, nothing taken, but paid for, none of the French upbraided or abused in disdainful language; for when lenity and cruelty play for a kingdom, the gentler gamester is the soonest winner. This passage is basically saying he wants to make an exam ple of Bardolph as a warning to his soldiers to be respectful and not have the villages in France pillaged or the citizens terrorized, or they will have to face the consequences of their actions. He also feels that the French prisoners should face the consequences for the slaying of the Boys, and orders their throats to be cut. His anger fuels this decision because he wants justice for the boys that were slaughtered.At the end of battle, Henry carries the Boy, showing his sorrow for the loss of these young men. Overall, King Henry is seen by his soldiers as good and just, yet firm with his punishment of his subjects. Without the minor characters, our judgment of the King may be harshly skewed. They are also the only link in this play between the King and Falstaff. The minor characters enlighten our understanding of the King, give us some background information, and serve their purpose well.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Macroeconomics Tutorial Test Essay

Question 1. (i) Identify and briefly explain the main features of the business cycle. (2 marks) Business cycles are usually characterized by periods of transition from peak to trough and then from trough to peak. The peak of a business cycle is the high point of GDP prior to a downturn whereas a Trough is the low point economic activity prior to a recovery. The period in which the economy is moving from a peak to a trough is called a contraction and the period in which the economy is moving from a trough to peak is an Expansion. (ii) Explain the concepts of (a) potential output and (b) the output gap. (3 marks) Potential Output (y*) or full employment output is the level of GDP an economy can produce when using its resources, such as labour and capital, at normal rates. This is not the same as maximum output. Potential output grows over time with growth in labour and capital and with growths in technology. At any point in time, the difference between the economy’s potential output and actual output is called the output gap (y – y*). A positive output gap, which occurs when actual output is higher than potential output and when resources are being utilised at above-normal rates, is called an expansionary gap. This is related to firms operating above normal capacity and can lead them to raise prices (inflationary). On the other hand, a negative output gap, which occurs when potential output exceeds actual output and when resources are not being utilised, is called a contractionary gap. This is re lated to capital and labour not being fully utilised (cost in terms of forgone output). (iii) Explain the concept of Okun’s law. Discuss the implications of Okun law for policymakers. (5 marks) Okun’s law states that each extra percentage point of cyclical unemployment is associated with about a 1.6 percentage point (for Australia) increase in the output gap, measured in relation to potential output. The quantitative relationship is (y-y*)/y* = -B(u-u*). This describes how an additional percentage point of cyclical unemployment is associated with a B percentage point decline in the output gap. The output losses associated sustained in recessions, calculated according to Okun’s law, can be quite significant. Calculations using this relationship depict that output gaps and cyclical unemployment may have major costs. Therefore, we can conclude with the fact that the public and policymakers have concern in relation to contractions and recessions. Question 2 (i) Discuss the role played by fixed (or sticky) prices in the Keynesian model of income determination. Briefly explain what would happen if prices were fully flexible in the short run. (2 marks) New Keynesians assume prices and wages are fixed or sticky, meaning that they do not change easily or quickly with alterations in supply and demand, so that quantity adjustment prevails. When prices are sticky, higher aggregate demand raises production, and this raises incomes. If prices were fully flexible in the short run, economy’s resources would be fully employed and thereby the economy would return to the natural level of real GDP. Firms would stop producing when price is lower than production cost, so there would be less competition. (ii) Explain the concept of Planned Aggregate Expenditure (PAE). How does PAE differ from Actual Expenditure? (2 marks) Planned Aggregate Expenditure is the total planned spending on final goods and services. In equilibrium, planned expenditure and actual expenditure must equal in the economy. The difference between planned and actual expenditure is unplanned inventory investment. When firms sell fewer products than planned, stocks of inventories increase. Because of this, actual expenditure can be above or below planned expenditure. (iii) Use the Keynesian aggregate expenditure model and appropriate diagrams to explain the following: – The paradox of thrift – The effect on equilibrium GDP of an exogenous increase in exports. (6 marks) Question 3 (i) Explain what is meant by the multiplier? Why, in general, does a one dollar change in exogenous expenditure produce a larger change in short-run output? (3 marks) The income-expenditure multiplier, or the multiplier for short, is the effect of a one-unit increase in exogenous expenditure on short-run equilibrium output. For example, a multiplier of 3 means that a 6-unit decrease in exogenous expenditure reduces short-run equilibrium output by 18 units. Therefore, a one dollar change in exogenous expenditure produce a larger change in short-run output as initial amount of expenditure leads to raised consumption spending resulting in an increase in national income greater than the initial amount of spending. (ii) Explain the role played by the marginal propensity to import in determining the size of the multiplier. Other things equal, how does an increase in the marginal propensity to import affect the size of the multiplier? (3 marks) The marginal propensity to import is the change in imports divided by the change in disposable income. It decides the slope of the aggregate expenditures line and is part to the multiplier process. Similar to taxes, the marginal propensity to import tends to lower the size of the multiplier as demand for domestically produced final goods and services falls. An increase in the marginal propensity to import increases the value of the denominator of the equation, which then decreases the overall value of the fraction and thus the size of the multiplier. (iii) Use a diagram to illustrate the concept of short-run equilibrium in the Keynesian aggregate expenditure model. Suppose the economy is initially not in equilibrium, explain the process by which the economy adjusts to equilibrium. (4 marks) Question 4 (i) What are the main instruments of fiscal policy? Explain how each might be used to close an expansionary output gap. (4 marks) Main components of Fiscal Policy: – Government expenditure: Government spending of goods and services, investment and infrastructure directly affects total spending. If too much or too little total spending causes output gaps, the government can help to guide the economy toward full employment by changing its own level of spending. – Taxes or transfer payments: In contrast, changes in tax or transfers do not affect planned spending directly. When disposable income rises households should spend more. Thus tax cut or increase in transfers should increase planned aggregate expenditure. Similarly, an increase in taxes or a cut in transfers, by lowering households’ disposable income, will tend to lower planned spending. This stimulates spending and eliminates contractionary gap. (ii) Explain what is meant by the government budget constraint. Indicate how it provides a link between fiscal policy and public debt. (3 marks) Government budget constraint is the term given to the concept that government spending in any period had to be financial either by raising taxes or by government borrowing.We can denote government expenditure undertaken by the government in period t by Gt and transfer payments by Qt. Therefore, the total spending activities of the government can be noted as Gt+ Qt. Also, the government has three means at its disposal to finance this expenditure: 1. Taxes available to be spent by government it time t – denoted by Tt. 2. Issued security when government borrows money – This is a financial asset that obliges the government to repay the loan, and pay interest, over some designated time period. Bt-2 is the stock of securities that the government still has owing at the end of the last period. Any new borrowing that the government unde rtakes in period t will be denoted as Bt – Bt-1. The stockpile of debt that accumulates when government continues borrowing money is called the public debt. 3. Interest needed to pay on government’s stock of debt – in any time t the government pays interest of rBt-1 where r is the real rate of interest. Government expenditures (purchases, transfer payments and interest payments) in any period need to be funded by taxes or by borrowing. This is the Government budget constraint summarized as below: Gt+ Qt + rBt-1 = Tt + (Bt – Bt-1). If we rearrange this so that gross taxes are on the left-hand side, the link between fiscal policy and the stock of public debt becomes readily apparent: Gt+ Qt – Tt + rBt-1 = (Bt – Bt-1). (iii) Explain the difference between discretionary fiscal policy and automatic stabilisers. Which one of these will be the main influence on the size of the structural budget deficit? Explain. (3 marks) Discretionary fiscal policy refers to deliberate changes in the level of government spending, transfer payments or in tax rates. Automatic stabilizers refer to the tendency for a system of taxes and transfers, which are related to the level of income to automatically reduce the size of GDP fluctuations.